Analysis on Soybean Oil Degumming Technology

Soybean oil degumming is one of the key steps in the soybean oil production process. Through hydration degumming technology, impurities and gums in soybean oil can be effectively removed and the quality of the oil can be improved. This article will deeply explore the principles, influencing factors, processes and equipment of hydration degumming.

Edible Oil Mill Machine Suppliers
Edible Oil Mill Machine Suppliers

Principle of hydration degumming - the interaction of physics and chemistry

Hydration degumming is a method through water intervention, which uses the physical and chemical effects of water to form an emulsion of fatty acids, proteins and other impurities in soybean oil, thereby achieving effective removal of impurities. Its principle mainly includes two aspects: physical action and chemical action.

 Physical Dissolution

The physical effect mainly uses the physical properties of water, such as dissolving power, to effectively remove colloids, proteins and other impurities in soybean oil. Specific steps are as follows:

Solubility of water: The solubility of water can be measured by the solubility of water. At a temperature of 60 degrees Celsius, the solubility of water to fatty acids can reach more than 60 grams per kilogram of water, and the solubility of water to colloids can reach 30 grams per kilogram of water. Above, this ensures that water effectively interacts with the fatty acids and gums in soybean oil during the hydration degumming process.

Colloidal particle formation: During the hydration degumming process, the colloidal particles of fatty acids and proteins typically range in diameter from 1 to 10 microns, which helps form stable emulsions. By controlling the stirring speed and time, the size of the colloidal particles can be adjusted, thereby affecting the subsequent separation effect.

Chemical Adsorption Precipitation

The chemical effect mainly involves the complexation of alkaline earth metal ions in soybean oil by water, which enhances the combination of impurities and water and facilitates subsequent precipitation and separation. The specific process includes:

Complexation of alkaline earth metal ions: The amount of calcium ions added in hydration degumming is usually controlled within the range of 0.1 to 0.5 grams per kilogram of water. Such an addition amount can not only promote the formation of complexes of organic matter, but also avoid the adverse effects of excessive metal ions on oil quality.

Bonding strength: By regulating the pH value during hydration and degumming to maintain it within the range of 8.5 to 9.5, it helps to form a stronger complex. This helps improve the effectiveness of subsequent precipitation and separation and ensures adequate removal of organic matter in the aqueous phase.

Through the synergistic effect of physical and chemical effects, hydration degumming can effectively remove impurities such as colloids and proteins in soybean oil and improve the quality and purity of the oil. This process plays a key role in soybean oil processing, ensuring that the final product meets food safety standards.

4 Factors and Guidelines Affecting Hydration Degumming

The effect of hydration degumming is comprehensively affected by many factors. The following is an introduction to the main factors.

  • 1. Temperature control range: 50-70 degrees Celsius

During the hydration and degumming process, the suitable temperature is usually between 50 degrees Celsius and 70 degrees Celsius. Within this range, water molecules have a strong ability to dissolve fatty acids and proteins, which helps improve separation efficiency. The details can be fine-tuned according to the type of grease and the characteristics of the production equipment.

  • 2. Optimization of water-oil ratio

Generally, the suitable water-oil ratio is 1:1 to 2:1. Within this range, impurities in the water phase can be effectively dispersed, which is beneficial to the subsequent separation process. A water-to-oil ratio that is too low may result in impurities not being fully dispersed, while a water-to-oil ratio that is too high may increase production costs, so adjustments need to be made within this range.

  • 3. PH value of alkalin​e conditions

  The appropriate pH value is usually between 8.5 and 9.5. Within this range, organic matter such as colloids reacts with alkaline substances in the water to form larger colloidal particles, which is helpful for subsequent precipitation. A pH value that is too low or too high may lead to a decrease in reaction efficiency and needs to be adjusted through real-time monitoring.

  • 4. Balance of degumming time

Degumming time is usually between 20 and 40 minutes. Within this range, impurities in water and oil have enough time to react, improving the separation effect. In actual operation, the optimal degumming time can be determined through small-scale experiments to balance production effects and costs.

Hydration degumming process

The hydration degumming process is an indispensable part of soybean oil production, and the corresponding equipment selection and optimization are crucial to the degumming effect.

The typical process flow of hydration degumming includes preheating, hydration, precipitation, separation and other steps. In practical applications, it can be adjusted and optimized according to different production requirements.

  • 1. Preheat (60 degrees Celsius to 80 degrees Celsius)

At this stage, soybean oil is heated to an appropriate temperature (usually between 60 degrees Celsius and 80 degrees Celsius. Within this range, it can promote the hydration degumming reaction and increase the reaction rate and effect) to promote the hydration degumming reaction. proceeding. The preheating equipment is usually a preheating pot, and its design needs to consider temperature control, energy consumption and ease of operation. The selection of temperature should be determined according to the specific situation to improve the reaction rate and effect.

  • 2. Hydration (temperature controlled at 80-95℃)

In the degumming pot, preheated soybean oil is mixed with an appropriate amount of water to form a water-oil emulsion. The optimal temperature for the hydration degumming reaction is usually between 80 degrees Celsius and 95 degrees Celsius. During the hydration process, physical and chemical effects cause colloids, proteins and other impurities in the oil to interact with water to form colloidal particles. The design of the degumming pot needs to consider the stirring effect, temperature control and reaction time. Stirring can promote the complete mixing of water and oil, increase the reaction rate, and ensure the formation of a uniform water-oil emulsion.

  • 3. Colloidal particle precipitation

The colloidal particles formed after hydration need to be separated by sedimentation. This step is usually performed in a settling tank. The design of the sedimentation tank should consider the sedimentation effect and the degree of impurity separation, and usually adopt a suitable shape and structure to ensure full settlement of the colloidal particles. In the sedimentation tank, by controlling the sedimentation time (30 minutes to 60 minutes), effective precipitation of colloidal particles can be achieved.

  • 4. Centrifugal separation of water and oil

Separation is a key step to ensure the degumming effect, and centrifuge separation is a common choice. Sedimentation centrifuge and degumming centrifuge are two common separation equipment, and their selection should be based on specific degumming requirements and production scale. These devices can effectively separate the water phase and oil phase to ensure the purity of the oil.

Degumming equipment selection

When selecting degumming equipment, you need to fully consider the process requirements, production scale and equipment performance.

Soybean Oil Degumming Process Solutions
Soybean Oil Degumming Process Solutions

  • Selection of degumming pot: saving labor costs

The degumming pot is the key equipment in the hydration degumming process. Its design should consider factors such as temperature control, stirring effect, and ease of operation.

Temperature control: Choose a degumming pot with a precise temperature control system to ensure that the appropriate temperature range can be maintained during the hydration degumming process.

Stirring effect: Consider the stirring system of the degumming pot to ensure uniform stirring, promote full mixing of water and oil, and increase the reaction rate.

Easy to operate: Equipment should be easy to operate and maintain to reduce labor costs and ensure the stability of the production process.

  • Selection of sedimentation tank: full sedimentation

The design of the sedimentation tank should consider the sedimentation effect and the degree of impurity separation, and adopt an appropriate shape and structure to ensure sufficient settlement of the colloidal particles.

Precipitation effect: Choose a sedimentation tank with a reasonable structure and a design that is conducive to the settlement of colloidal particles to ensure a good precipitation effect.

Impurity separation: The design should consider the effective separation of impurities to ensure the efficiency of subsequent separation equipment.

Separation Equipment Selection: Improving Efficiency

The selection of separation equipment is directly related to the results of degumming. Common ones include sedimentation centrifuges, degumming centrifuges, etc., which need to be selected and adjusted according to the actual situation.

Sedimentation centrifuge: When selecting a centrifuge, pay attention to its separation efficiency and processing capacity. The efficient sedimentation centrifuge can effectively separate the water phase and oil phase and improve the purity of the oil.

Degumming centrifuge: Consider the performance parameters of the degumming centrifuge, such as rotation speed, separation factor, etc., to ensure that you select equipment suitable for the specific degumming process and scale.

Hydration degumming is a key step in refining soybean oil. An in-depth understanding of its principles and a scientific grasp of its influencing factors are crucial to improving the quality of soybean oil. In actual production, scientific and reasonable technological processes and high-quality equipment selection can maximize the efficiency and effect of hydration degumming and lay a solid foundation for the sustainable development of the soybean oil industry.

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